Construction of filled hill for downhill ski racing complex in Moscow
In 1997-2002 large scope soil excavations for construction of Business Center ‘Moscow-City’, Third Highway Circle and other large structures with deep foundations were carried out in Moscow. The soil excavated out of 180,000.00 m? pits was dumped on a disposal site originally designed as a temporary soil storage site in the Southwestern suburbs of Moscow. Snow, ice and clots of frozen soil were left untouched and piling was effected over the frozen surface. This spoil heap was a mass of exceedingly wet sandy clay heterogeneous as to composition and density with low strength and deformation properties, including crushed concrete and bricks and tended to land sliding and self-compaction deformations.
Erection of the hill can be divided into four stages, judging by differences in physic-mechanical properties of soils down the depth of the embankment (Fig. 1).
Upon fulfillment of the 2nd stage of excavation (Fig. 1 ‘b’) at the end of the year 2001 the absolute mark of the top of the slope has reached 222 m, with the natural relief surface mid-mark making 177-178 m prior to heap excavation, and a heap height from its cone base has made 45 m. At the same time it was decided to use that hill as a standing ski-racing complex with a ski-jump.
At the stage ‘b’ (Fig. 1) prospectors have made studies of physic-mechanical properties of the entire mass of fill-up soils and natural lower stratum as well by well-boring and static probing of soils for the ski-racing complex project design.